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pemakaman di kampung raja

umbu manna

umbu manna mengabarkan bahwa upacara pemakaman di kampung raja kemaren itu [14-15 september 2006] melibatkan 5000-6000an tamu , itu pun masih ada 4 rombongan yang karena perjalanannya jauh tidak bisa datang pas upacara, hanya mewakilkan utusannya saja.

ada 6 ekor kuda yang dikurbankan, 3 ekor kerbau, 5 ekor sapi dan 33 ekor babi..!

upacara kematian bukan sembarang upacara.

mati tidak sekadar tiadanya nyawa seseorang namun juga masalah solidaritas kekerabatan. matinya seseorang justru menjadi sarana bagi tampilnya dan diperkuatnya lagi ikatan antar keluarga.

aksi puasa pembangunan

yang ingin tahu lebih lanjut, termasuk kekeliruan dalam memahami APP silakan klik blog dari keuskupan agung semarang ini.

http://appkas.blogspot.com/

tektonika sumba

memang pada dasarnya semua sistem sambungan di rumah sumba adalah portal, kecuali untuk atap. struktur atap mengandalkan ikatan baik ikatan dari alang-alang penutup atap ke rangka bambu maupun rangka bambu itu ke struktur utama rumah yang berupa komposisi empat buah portal yang membentuk semacam sakaguru dalam struktur rumah jawa. berbeda dari saka guru jawa yang terbangun dari empat tiang dengan pengakuan di kapitalnya[ jadi, keempatnya membentuk satu kesatuan yang solid], sedangkan sistem sumba itu terjadi dari dua pasang portal yang ditumpangi oleh dua pasang portal lain.

untuk foto-foto silakan klik ini.

portal-portal ini mendapatkan kekakuannya dengan pen atau pasak. bukan dengan ikatan.
benar bahwa kontribusi ikatan dalam struktur rumah [bukan atap ya…] sekadar supaya tidak lari.

sistem struktur yang sangat sederhana ini [portal] berkaitan dengan tidak dikenalnya alat pertukangan selain parang dan kampak. tidak ada gergaji, pasah, pahat sehingga kesan rustic nampak kuat, seperti halnya mereka memperlakukan batu-batu besarnya. menurut catatan, orang sumba mengenal logal baru belakangan ketika portugis mampir ke sana! [secara arkeologis memang ditemukan nekara logam di melolo, sumba timur, yang mirip dengan tradisi dongson]

kampung raja

berada sekitar 4 km dari kambajawa [benang-jawa], tempat tinggal rudi [rudolf umbu loly].

kampung raja sekarang sudah kehilangan lapangan desanya: dibelah oleh jalan beraspal dari stadion menuju bandara mau hau.

desa ini sering dikunjungi turis maupun peneliti. antropologi, musikus [dan yang belum adalah arsitektur].

beberapa makam raja masih terlihat di tengah [bekas] lapangan desa. ada sebuah pohon beringin yang di bawahnya terdapat batu-batu besar berukir: kakaktua, buaya, babi, kura-kura, kuda, ayam…

di dekatnya tinggal rambu margaretha [istri dari tamu umbu jaka] yang punya anak 8 orang dan semuanya kuliah di yogya: AMPTA, JANABADRA, UGM [pertanian, kehutanan], AMIKOM. rumah umbu jaka inilah yang paling sering didatangi turis dan peneliti berhubung pengetahuannya luas di bidang kebudayaan sumba. salah satu anaknya [umbu njurumanna] akan menemani perjalanan kami dari ujung timur sumba ke ujung baratnya.

di rumahnya kami menonton video pemakaman raja di rende. wafatnya raja rende dihadiri oleh banyak keluarga, termasuk utusan dari kampung raja.

sebelumnya kami mengunjungi rumah raja, rumah dari tamu umbu pingiay [sekarang camat pandaway]. di rumah itu kami diterima oleh pak david panjara, wakil RW.

[wawancara direkam]

rumah raja ini bermodul 250 cm memanjang 6 trave dan melebar 4 trave. ruang depan, serupa teras [istilah setempat: bangga] selebar 250. bangga di ujung-ujungnya ditinggikan 15 cm untuk duduk raja maupun tuan rumah. tinggi bangga dari tanah sekitar 100cm dan dari bangga ke lantai rumah naik 60 cm.
interior lantainya juga ditinggikan di sisi-sisinya sekitar 15 cm untuk tidur perempuan atau tamu. lantai ini ditopang oleh struktur balok induk dan balok anak dengan jarak sekitar 60cm. balok-balok ini ditopang langsung oleh tiang-tiang utama. tiang utama ditanam dalam tanah tanpa pondasi dan menjulang hingga ke atap sehingga tiang ini menopang beban atap maupun lantai.
rumah raja menghadap timur. arah ini bukan orientasi utama karena yang penting setiap rumah menghadap lapangan desa yang di tengahnya terdapat makam raja-raja.

kebiasaan sehari-hari

sentuh hidung.
orang sumba bila bertemu akan saling menyentuhkan hidung, meskipun kebanyakan hidungnya tidaklah mancung. kesan pertama saya tentang mereka, orang di sumba timur ini ramah-ramah.

nginang
ini juga adalah kebiasaan yang dilakukan kebanyakan orang, pewaris peradaban austronesian :-)
noda bercak merah banyak dijumpai di rumah maupun jalanan sehingga di bandara ada poster yang melarang orang nginang!

tidur

malam pertama di waingapu kepala masih pusing dan perut kembung. aku turuti kemauan tubuhku untuk beristirahat. mungkin karena irama makanku terganggu sejak dari yogya [?]

aku butuh tempat tidur yang lebih leluasa untuk tubuhku agar bisa memilih posisi yang paling enak. berjam-jam duduk dalam getaran pesawat telah membikin tubuh tua ini terganggu iramanya.

tapi, di sini tempat tidurnya kecil-kecil dan berkelambu. mungkin memang ukuran tubuh orang dulu pendek-pendek? enggak. menurut rudi, tempat tidur ini dulunya bekas punya asrama anak sekolah sehingga memang berukuran kecil-kecil :-)

tidur di rumah tradisional di desa boddo ede asyik. tidak diserang nyamuk. mungkin karena nyamuknya mabok oleh bau kandang babi di bawah rumah :-) enggak laa…. nyamuknya tidak bisa menembus kelambu tempat tidur kami itu.

http://www.zmag.org/content/showarticle.cfm?ItemID=6648

One million – two million – maybe even three million people died in the aftermath of a 1965 military coup led by the general Suharto and supported by the West. Nobody knows the exact number; there were no records kept and no serious investigations made. Storytellers were murdered too; thrown in jail, forced to exile. Manuscripts and books were burned. Film studios were closed down. Thinkers were tortured, murdered, forced to exile.

That’s what happened in Indonesia after the coup that was full-heartedly supported by the West.

Until now, Indonesia remains the most “undocumented” major country on earth. Almost no great books and studies were ever written about it. The few documentary films which were produced rely heavily on eyewitnesses from the West. One reason for this is, of course, that famous “culture of silence”.

In Indonesia itself, after long decades of political and religious brainwashing, it is hard – almost impossible – to find a man or a woman capable of making coherent analyses of the situation. While other large and complex countries like China, India and Brazil are producing great and highly critical books, films and important historical studies pointed at their societies – nothing worth noticing is coming from Indonesia.

There is a shocking uniformity in what Indonesians think: they all have religion, and almost all of them are practicing a conservative branch of it; they almost all believe that PKI – The Communist Party of Indonesia – was responsible for the coup and should remain banned; that East Timor was not a place of horrific massacres but only an insignificant area where “they were killing us and we were killing them”. Until now, the great majority sees nothing wrong with the brutal occupation and oppression of people in Papua, Malukas and Aceh. And above all, almost everybody considers capitalism to be a perfectly suitable economic system for Indonesia.

At closer look, all this is not surprising. Almost immediately after it performed the coup in 1965, the military government, backed by the business elites, began a massive propaganda campaign, reversing the truth by 180 degrees: accusing Communists of staging the coup, murdering seven high ranking army officials and attempting to plunge Indonesia into chaos.

Communists became the first to be destroyed, closely followed by ethnic Chinese, progressives and atheists.

Suharto then launched his “Order Baru” (New Order), a vaguely identifiable brand of fascism based on cheap nationalism, obligatory religious indoctrination and subordination of the individual to authority – something often described as “Javanism”.

Eventually the military, government, big business, religious leaders and servile teachers and “educators” (only half of teachers survived 1965/66 massacres and those who remained in the system, without exceptions, had to collaborate with the regime) united their efforts and fully destroyed all critical thought and free thinking in this fourth most populous nation on earth.

Before the coup, Indonesia was undeniably a very progressive country, leading the world’s non-aligned movement. President Sukarno often described himself as: “anti-imperialist, anti-colonialist and anti-capitalist”. PKI – the Indonesian Communist Party – was the third largest Communist party on the planet. PKI was at that time working very closely with Sukarno and it had no need to perform any sort of coup – it was getting millions of votes, democratically. Indonesia was moderate, truly secular and a multi-cultural nation. Almost no woman was covered by a headscarf; no religion would dare to impose its rules of conduct on the citizens.

But American political elites – from Eisenhower to Nixon – had enough of progressiveness coming from the leader of one of the largest countries on earth. They never hid their determination to overthrow Sukarno’s government and to reverse the progressive course on which his country embarked. Indonesia had been bombed by the US air force from its bases in Philippines, while American politicians were making open threats.

The US was indisputably helping the Indonesian army with the planning of the 1965 coup. Many Indonesian top ranking military officers were paid and/or trained by the American government, while the embassy supplied leaders of the planned coup with the detailed list of names of those people who were later to be systematically liquidated.

After the coup Indonesia almost immediately degenerated into one of the most oppressive, corrupt, intellectually dull and compassionless societies on earth. Sukarno’s Indonesia was built on enthusiasm; Suharto’s on compliance and fear. The speed of change was shocking. But then, in what other society would 2 or 3 million people vanish in less than one year? One of the main reasons for compliance of those who survived was, of course, fear.

The new government served Western political and business interests perfectly well. Almost all public services had been privatized, including drinking water and transportation. Privatization had been accompanied by cronyism from top to bottom. Suharto and his family managed to amass unimaginable fortunes, taking big parts of them out of the country while the whole system was evolving into some sort of complex, institutionalized cleptocracy. But for the West that was all fine, as long as workers at the new multi-national assembly lines continued to be cheap and unorganized, as long as a scared and uneducated majority of Indonesians was not questioning the legitimacy of the system.

For outside “investors” – mining companies, for instance – it was possible to arrange almost any necessary permits to plunder natural resources all over the Indonesian archipelago, as long as the correct person had been bribed, as long as the right price had been paid. National interests were suddenly of no importance. Tremendous fortunes were made by the few, while a majority of Indonesians was descending into hopelessness, living in a lawless, corrupt, dirt-poor and brutal society.

Trade unions were broken and those that survived were forced to represent companies instead of their employees. Opposition had been banned and not only that: even some words like “class” or expressions like “class struggle” were forbidden. Chinese language (Mandarin) and Chinese culture were forbidden, too, including cakes and dragons.

Atheism and agnosticism were banned from the very beginning – even the words themselves. In the present day Indonesia, all mosques broadcast — at scandalously high volume and from the loudspeakers — entire sermons 5 times a day (some lasting well over one hour, basically waking up everybody who lives nearby as early as 4AM). There is no escape from this religious, clearly Orwellian indoctrination that served the dictatorship (by demanding obedience and uniformity) for almost 40 years. There can also be hardly any doubt that there is nothing “secular” left in today’s Indonesia, anymore.

Indonesian cities were fully surrendered to the private developers, became monstrously ugly (especially enormous Jakarta, which can be easily voted the most depressing and unfit-to-live-in capital of Pacific Asia), polluted, lacking green public spaces and even sidewalks.

The countryside, where most of the people still live, has been frozen in time or is simply returning to the middle ages; village chiefs, landowners and religious leaders are again presiding over the fate of the silent and obedient majority.

While hypocritical rulers were passing idiotic religion-inspired laws like the one against cohabitation (since last year a man and a woman cannot live together under one roof, unless they are close family members or are married), and against kissing in public (this proposed law will probably pass next year, again without any public outcry or protests) Indonesia quietly became one of the top exporters of child prostitutes. It has also one of the highest rates of sexual abuse of children anywhere in the world. Not to mention the fact that child beggars are on every major corner of big and small cities, many of them stoned on glue and other chemicals.

The film…

Indifference, hypocrisy, corruption (real and moral) is everywhere. Suharto’s design was to feed this country with pop and rubbish news, magazines, newspapers, music, films and books – feed it to everybody; to the rich and to the poor alike – and he succeeded in creating a nation almost without artists, intellectuals, scientists, without real opposition – a culture of emptiness.

. History was never seriously taught. There were lies about the past, lies about the present, false nationalism, religious fundamentalism, market fundamentalism, fear, hunger, lack of hygiene, of drinking water, of hospitals, schools, roads, security, lack of basic human decency and dignity – all this shocked me so much that I decided that I could not have continued to be just a bystander; I had to address the problems.

The truth had to be told; someone had to do it and since nobody seemed to be interested in the task, it simply had to be done by me. And I had to hurry up, because elections were approaching and there were great chances that the military will return to power, making this entire project virtually impossible.

I knew Indonesia extremely well, writing for 10 years about its conflicts, crisscrossing it in all possible directions. But this was different – I had to revisit its entire culture, reverse its past; tell the truth that had not been pronounced for 40 years, expose Suharto’s lies. I had to create a philosophical concept on which to base the film, but there was not much time for thinking.

There was no time for fund-rising, either, and I decided to dump all my savings into the project instead of waiting and risking that I may lose the only chance to make this film. Other team members invested their time and efforts, even money, too.

Thanks to our brilliant production manager, “the best of Indonesia” got involved in our project; those few people who survived indoctrination, prisons, concentration camps, isolation, even scorn. We managed to work with those Indonesians who never surrendered; those who fought, those who never lost their pride.

We worked with Pramoedya Ananta Toer – one of the greatest living Asian novelists – former prisoner at Buru concentration camp; with Asvi Warman Adam who ridiculed the entire state sponsored propaganda theory, arguing that there was no Communist conspiracy in 1965; with the son of the former First Secretary of the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI) – Ilham Aidit.

We worked with Djokopekik, arguably the greatest Indonesian painter and former prisoner of the New Order. We also worked with progressive Muslim cleric and former President of Indonesia – Abdurrahman Wahid – who repeatedly apologizes to the victims, calling for the history to be re-written and for Islam to be reformed. And we worked with many other people, famous and anonymous – but almost all of them victims, although most of them not even aware of the fact that they were.

And in the end, after the final editing in Hanoi, we dedicated this film to those very few people who fought Suharto’s New Order and to those millions who lost their lives during its reign.

Terlena is a 90 minutes long documentary. It was shot in 2004, before the Presidential election, on several locations in Indonesia: in the capital Jakarta, in Bandung and Depok, in the ancient capital of Java – Jogyakarta and in Bali.

It was written, produced and directed by the American writer, political analyst and filmmaker Andre Vltchek and co-directed, edited and filmed by Finnish filmmaker Linda Puroaho. Production manager, translator and advisor was Rossie Indira, Indonesian architect and writer, daughter of a former prisoner of conscience.

Until now, the film had not been shown in Indonesia itself – all local television stations, refused to take the risk and offer it to the public. It goes without saying that almost all of Indonesian media is still owned and controlled by those who were directly involved in Suharto’s “New Order”.

“Terlena – Breaking of a Nation” will be opening on November 18th, at 12:10PM at Village East Cinemas (screen No.6), 181 2nd Avenue at 12th Street, in New York. Admission is free.

Filmmakers are warmly inviting distributors, critics and filmmakers to attend this event. Invitation is also extended to general public.

ANDRE VLTCHEK can be contacted at: andre-wcn@usa.net

waingapu-waikabubak

kami mendarat sebentar di tambolaka, sumba barat.

getaran pesawat merpati foker 27 ini sangat hebat. sepanjang jalan dari denpasar tidak bisa tidur. pusing masih terasa.
bagasi terlalu banyak untuk pesawat jenis itu. tasku diminta dibawa saja di ruang penumpang karena tidak terlalu besar, sedang tas pak greg di bagasi. beberapa brosur titipan PPMB dipindah ke tasku. bagasi terpaksa dipisah pengirimannya dari penumpang dan diperkirakan baru sampai waingapu 3 hari lagi!
[bersama kami ada rombongan suster yang menuju tambolaka, sumba barat. sumba barat memang daerah katolik. di sana seorang pastor sangat dihormati.]

di bandara tambolaka terjadi kehebohan karena banyak bagasi tidak ditemukan. juga milik pak greg.

sedangkan waingapu adalah kota kabupaten di sumba timur. sumba hanya punya 2 kabupaten: barat di waikabubak dan timur di waingapu.
kami mendarat sebentar di tambolaka. bandar udara di sumba barat.

muka bumi di sini berkerut-kerut seperti kulit jeruk. di bukit-bukit itulah masyarakat secara tradsional membangun desa-desa mereka.

kota waingapu sudah banyak didatangi orang tionghoa yang menguasai ekonomi setempat. terutama untuk pasokan barang impor dari kota-kota besar di jawa atau bali.
orang tua di sini berorientasi untuk menyekolahkan anaknya menjadi pegawai. bali adalah salah satu orientasi terdekat mereka. menyekolahkan anak perempuan cukup di bali, sedangkan untuk anak cowok ke yogya atau salatiga yang lebih jauh.

Ikuti

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